Impact of NVP

NVP can have a physical, psychological and social impact.


Physiological impact

  • Poor nutrition or malnutrition, dehydration or electrolyte imbalance, poor sleep1-3
  • The severity of nausea is comparable to that induced by chemotherapy4

Psychological impact

  • Detrimental far-reaching consequences on quality of life5-8
  • NVP interferes in everyday activities for 40% of women5-9 leading to feelings of isolation, helplessness and depression10-12

Social impact

  • On average, up to 40% of women need time off work due to NVP8,13-16
  • Partners lose an average of 3.5 days from work in order to care for partners with NVP14

Further Impact:

  • NVP is the most common indication for admission to hospital during the first trimester of pregnancy1,2,17 with 65% being emergency admissions18
  • Severe NVP can be associated with severe dehydration, malnutrition and electrolyte imbalances1,2,3

References:

  1. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum (Green-top Guideline No. 69). 22 June 2016. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists: London. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg69/.
  2. Mitchell-Jones N, et al. Ambulatory versus inpatient management of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomised control trial with patient preference arm. BMJ Open 2017;7:e017566. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017566.
  3. Stokke G, Gjelsvik BL, Flaatten KT, Birkeland E, Flaatten H, Trovik J. Hyperemesis gravidarum, nutritional treatment by nasogastric tube feeding: a 10-year retrospective cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015;94:359–67.
  4. Lacroix R, Eason E, Melzack R. Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: a prospective study of its frequency, intensity, and patterns of change. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 182(4): 931-937.
  5. Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Continuing series on Women’s Health Education. 2011; Jespersen & Associates, LLC, Boston, Massachusetts.
  6. Mazzotta P. Psychosocial Morbidity Among Women with Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: Prevalence: Prevalence and Association with Anti-Emetic Therapy. J. Psychosom Obstet Gynecol 2000;21: 129-136.
  7. O’Brien B et al. Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: effects on the quality of women’s lives. Birth 1992; 19:138-143.
  8. Vellacott ID et al. Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1988;27:57-62.
  9. Mazzotta P. Attitudes, Management and Consequences of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy in the United States and Canada.Internat J Gynecol Obstet 2000; 70: 359-365.
  10. Simpson SW, Goodwin TM, Robins S, et al. Psychological factors and hyperemesis gravidarum. J Women’s Health. 2001;10(5):471–477.
  11. Tan, P (2010). Anxiety and depression in hyperemesis gravidarum: Prevalence, risk factors and correlation with clinical severity. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 149, 153-158.
  12. Kramer, J. et al. Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: Prevalence, Severity and Relation to Psychosocial Health. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 2013; 38(1): 21-27.
  13. Gadsby R et al. A prospective study of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Brit J Gen Pract. 1993:43:245–8.
  14. Piwko C, Koren G, Babashov V, Vicente C, Einarson TR. Economic burden of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in the USA. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2013;20(2):e149-e160.
  15. Dorheim, SK. et al. Sick leave during pregnancy: a longitudinal study of rates and risk factors in a Norwegian population. BJOG. 2013; 210: 521-530.
  16. Tan, A. et al. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: Effects on quality of life and day-to-day function. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2017; 1-1.
  17. Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Jamieson DJ, et al. Hospitalizations During Pregnancy Among Managed Care Enrollees. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:94 –100.
  18. NHS Digital. HES data 2016/17. Available at: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/hospital-admitted-patient-care-activity/2016-17. Accessed July 2018.